Monday, September 30, 2019
Marie Appleby Module EPF 135 Roles and Responsibilities of a Teacher in the Lifelong Learning sSector The Lifelong Learning UK (2007) standards, highlight the complexity of the role of the FE teacher as follows Ã¢â¬Å"teachers have a responsibility for ensuring high standards of teaching and learning, as well as contributing to curriculum development and to the development of their subject knowledgeÃ¢â¬ http://dera. ioe. ac. uk 21/10/11 Identifying Needs A key role of the teacher is to identify the needs of all learners so effective learning can be developed. The teacher may conduct tutorials at the beginning the course, to review and record personal information, barriers to learning, academic and vocational achievements. The information can be used to develop a learner pro? le, ensuring lesson planning and learning materials are appropriate and increase the chance of successful teaching and learning. Learners may feel uncomfortable disclosing or discussing personal information, therefore it may be advantageous to issue an anonymous questionnaire to the class. All information must be handled in a professional manner and kept con? ential. Planning and Design Teachers could plan and design a learning schedule. Changes can be made to these plans throughout the teaching cycle using assessment and evaluation. Teachers need to ensure that learning outcomes, objectives and aims for the course are covered in an appropriate way e. g. order in which outcomes are planned, delivery strategies, length of time, resources and assessment methods. Courses may be planned with an aim to ensure learning outcomes are met in the time allocated, using appropriate resources and methods. TeachersÃ¢â¬â¢ need to be aware of the requirements issued by their awarding body and organisation. Delivery Delivery of a course should be appropriate for all learners using clear aims and objectives. Activities should be differentiated to accommodate different learning styles. Resources should be well prepared, with suf? cient copies that support the learning activities. Sessions should be divided using an introduction, main and a conclusion to help the lesson progress logically and consolidate learning. Teachers need to ensure they have the 1 Marie Appleby Module EPF 135 knowledge and skills to deliver the course and be able to answer questions. Teachers should be smartly dressed and use a professional manner when teaching never using discriminatory, judgmental or offensive language. Teacher / student relationships should be based on mutual trust and respect with a responsibility to uphold safeguarding procedures, keeping learners safe, both physically and emotionally, within a safe learning environment. the process of safeguarding protects individuals who may be at risk from abuse or neglect, which could cause an impact on their education, health and development. safeguarding aims to ensure individuals are provided with a caring environment that is safe, promotes optimum life and learning chancesÃ¢â¬ . (safeguardingchildren. org. uk (20/10/2011) Assess Methods of assessment should be planned, fair, reliable and linked to activity tasks. Learner achievement and progress can be mon itored throughout the learning process. Clear, concise and accurate feedback can be given to learners on their progress and achievement. Feedback should be given as quickly as possible, based on the quality of submission or performance, using positive and developmental comments. Information should be recorded in preparation for submission to the course awarding body. Teachers should avoid assessment tasks that do not link directly to the learning objectives, and ensure planned assessments are at the correct level for learners. Evaluate Evaluations should be conducted after each session, including strengths of the session, and areas for development and improvements. Learners could also be asked to re? ect on the sessions; this could be done verbally, through an evaluation form or by an evaluation activity. Conclusion The teaching/training cycle provides a cohesive structure within which roles, responsibilities and boundaries can be assessed and re? ected upon. The structure of the cycle is such that a successful teacher will multitask stages in a constantly evolving way. This ensures that teacher and studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ re? ctive growth of role, responsibilities and boundaries remains core to reaching a greater understanding of the aims and objectives relating to development with the course. 2 Marie Appleby Module EPF 135 Bibliographic References lluk 2007. (2007). National Occupational Standards (NOS) for the role of learning support practitioner in the lifelong learning sector . Available: http://dera. ioe. ac. uk/2332/1/ lspnosdraft. pdf. Last accessed 21st Oct 2011. Ofstead. What is safeguarding. Available: http://safeguardingchildren. org. uk/. Last accessed 20th october 2011. Word Count: 650 3 Marie Appleby Module EPF 135 4
Sunday, September 29, 2019
A little help with Analyse of The Inspector Calls by J. B Priestly. Detailed explanations of Dramatic devises used, backing quotes in an essay format. Within the play An Inspector Calls J. B Priestly uses numerous dramatic devises to get across his message of moral, class and political influence. In this essay I am going to explore and illustrate some key and subtle points in act one and further, of these themes of which Priestly works towards to influence the audience and finds himself involved in. The first hints of his central themes are imposed when J. B describes the scene and setting of the first act.An immediate perception is given off towards the audience of Ã¢â¬Ëheavily comfortable house. Ã¢â¬â¢ With this being a place of constant setting, a reflection of real time and naturalism is released. The lighting prescribed for the scene also creates the mood of the play. Priestly states within his stage directions the lighting should be Ã¢â¬Ëpink and intimateÃ¢â¬â¢ prior to the inspector arrives a shaded glow of rose tint then should grow Ã¢â¬Ëbrighter and harderÃ¢â¬â¢. In context and example of these stage directions are as pursued. Ã¢â¬ËThe dining room of a fairly large suburban house, belonging to a prosperous manufacturer.It has good solid furniture of the period. At the moment they have all had a good dinner, are celebrating a special occasion, and are pleased with themselves. Ã¢â¬â¢ Subtly is added to the atmosphere presented to the audience when the notion of not all is as it seems is suggested. Initially the ambience obtained appears slightly forced. This is exemplified trough the mannerism of EricÃ¢â¬â¢s nervousness, SheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s unknowing curiosity of GeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s whereabouts the previous summer and the reasons behind GeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s parents, Lord and Lady Croft, for not attending the engagement dinner.The spectators of the play may be stimulated due to the use of this dramatic devise, of the unknowing, indefinite being impli ed on what should be a comfortable scene, this works because of natural human curiosity searching for something deeper amongst the characters and setting. Another devise used to enhance the play writerÃ¢â¬â¢s dramatic concepts is the use of dramatic irony and tone. These are used when the knowledge of the audience exceeds those of the characters within the play. This technique of dramatic irony is in attendance when Mr Birling makes self-assured conjectures about the coming war and the ship Titanic being unsinkable.For example J. B Priestley uses techniques to expose BirlingÃ¢â¬â¢s naivety and generation gap, for example BirlingÃ¢â¬â¢s speech, Ã¢â¬ËWhy a friend of mine went over this new liner last week Ã¢â¬â the Titanic Ã¢â¬â she sails next week Ã¢â¬â forty six thousand eight hundred tons Ã¢â¬â New York in five days Ã¢â¬â and every luxury Ã¢â¬â and unsinkable, absolutely unsinkable. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s what you have got to keep your eye on, facts like that, prog ress like that Ã¢â¬âand not a few German officers talking nonsense and a few scaremongers here making a fuss about nothing. Now you three young people just listen to this Ã¢â¬â and remember what I am telling you now.In twenty or thirty yearsÃ¢â¬â¢ time Ã¢â¬â letÃ¢â¬â¢s say in 1940 Ã¢â¬â you may be giving a little party like this Ã¢â¬â your son or daughter may be getting engaged Ã¢â¬â and I tell, by that time youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be living in a world thatÃ¢â¬â¢ll have forgotten all these Capital versus Labour agitations and all these silly little war scares. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢ll be peace and prosperity and rapid progress everywhere Ã¢â¬â accept of course in Russia, which will always be behindhand naturally. Ã¢â¬â¢ This tactic makes the spectators of the play feel involved with the play due to their knowledgeable, advantaged background.Tension is also secured throughout the play as each character holds significant connection with the suicide victim, Eva Smith, who rep resents the universal populace. By making Eva a representation rather than a real character the moral of the play is taken more literally. The contribution from each character also produces a deeper and more involved structure towards the playÃ¢â¬â¢s plot. The Inspector, the true voice/mouth piece of Priestly adds a dramatic tone. The character is directed with the use of pace and tension and presents each idea and enquiry without conjunction, by observing and exposing each statement from an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s account.This method slowly throws light on the core of EvaÃ¢â¬â¢s life and the real effect of classes on a wider population. Another devise used by the inspector is an aura of menacing, ominous gloom, with is brought on with the added value of his ability to manipulate and influence the rest of the people in conjunction with his line of enquiries, due to his dominance. This is presented at the end of Act one and further on during the play and an example of this is Ã¢â¬Ë ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s what I asked myself tonight when I was looking at that dead girl.And then I said to myself Ã¢â¬Å"Well, weÃ¢â¬â¢ll try to understand why it had to happen? Ã¢â¬ And thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why IÃ¢â¬â¢m here, and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why IÃ¢â¬â¢m not going until I know all that happened. Eva Smith lost her job with Birling and Company because the strike failed and they were determined not to have another one. At least she found another job- under what name I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know- in a big shop, and had to leave there because you were annoyed with yourself and passed the annoyance on to her. Now she had to try something else. So first she changed her name to Daisy Renton-Ã¢â¬ËThe final devises of great importance are tension and timing. Within the performance copious alterations in tone are witnesses. A key example of this is the attitude and confidence of Mr Birling showing amendment and supplanted actions, initially with self-justification endeavouring to elucidate his function in the bereavement of Eva/ (the citizens of the world in the class struggle). Ã¢â¬Ë, and as it happened more than eighteen months ago- nearly two years ago- obviously it has nothing whatever to do with the wretched girlÃ¢â¬â¢s suicide. Anxiety is then portrayed by Mr Birling Ã¢â¬ËOh well-put like that, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s something in what you say. Still, I canÃ¢â¬â¢t accept and responsibility. If we were all responsible for everything that happened to everybody weÃ¢â¬â¢d had anything to do with, it would be very awkward, wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t it? Ã¢â¬â¢ Timing which features is a critical decisive; with stage directions of speech, movement exits, entrances and sounds. A strategic illustration of this is the arrival of the Inspector instantaneously, subsequent to Mr Birling notifying Gerald about his imminent knighthood and regards of how Ã¢â¬Ëa man has to look after himself and his own. In conclusion many devises are used throughout act one, some overlapping and although some ar e subtle, each technique holds great presence and importance within the play to convey J. B PriestleyÃ¢â¬â¢s ideology of class struggle. Citizenship values are portrayed and the dependence each person shares to one another come through. This is voiced through the inspector as PriestleyÃ¢â¬â¢s own mouth piece and with Eva as example of consequence from such actions.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Strengths LVMH has a strong brand positioning meaning that the company strongly placed itself as a leader in the luxury sector. The company offers more than 60 brands of high value perception and identity to their customers. Due to high customer loyalty, image of their brands and value perception those brands are less affected by economic cycles. Most evidently, LVMH expressed resilience against the economic conditions specifically in 2009 and 2008. This is an indicator that the strength of their brands enables their revenues to sustain growth even through touch economic situations. This is due to their huge customer base across the globe accompanied by their loyalty; thus, making their penetration to new markets with quick. The associations of LVMH with celebrities and major events have enabled them to enhance their luxury positioning. For example, Charlize Theron represents the JÃ¢â¬â¢adore perfume by Dior, while Moet & Chandon positioned their communications platform to events like the Oscars and the Golden Globe. Those marketing strategies were aimed in order to increase their brand visibility and recall. Moreover, their customers are targeted successfully through enhancing their brands images. All in all, those associations would eventually augment the luxury and its value that LVMH aims at building. Weaknesses A shortcoming in LVMHÃ¢â¬â¢s company is their limited presence in the retail division. This means that the company is highly dependant on sales to retailers. This in turn has caused the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s luxury goods vulnerable to destocking by their retailers in order to avoid losses. Most evidently, the wines, jewelry, and watches departments were highly affected negatively by the retailers destocking. Therefore, this has made LVMHÃ¢â¬â¢s revenues in danger of destocking made by retailers. There is also a weakness evident in the conflict of interest within the company, where LVMH would be categorized into two major segments: fashion vs. liquor markets. However, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s broad acquisition of the artÃ auction market Pury & Luxemborg has been questioned due to some criticism that it adds more burden to LVMH. This is yet another criteria to the conflict of interest believed to be internally dealt within the company. Opportunities The luxury market is believed to be a growing market in the emerging economies. The growing high net worth individuals (HNWI) in a lot of countries across the globe is an indicator that the sales of luxury products are estimated to increase. In effect, LVMH has been focusing in increasing their investment in emerging countries, such as the Middle East, in their hopes that higher growth rates will be evident. Moreover, LVMH was able to assess the trends in those markets specifically in AsiaÃ¢â¬â¢s market in order to succesfully penetrate them. Hence, the growth of the HNWIÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth accompanied by the structure of investments to reach to a broader customer base would intensify and diversify LVMHÃ¢â¬â¢s revenue flow. LVMH owes a great deal of their market share to their products on womenÃ¢â¬â¢s accessories. This would include their brands in handbags, jewelry, and watches amongst many others. Although the fashion accessories has seen a downfall during 2009; nevertheless, it is hinting that it is uprising to a recovery into growth since 2010. Most notably, women handbags were the most notable in the accessories market growth inversely reacting to the marketÃ¢â¬â¢s decrease during the same time. Those leather goods have been a great indicator in both the men and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s categories in the market share that there is a high growth of sales and revenue. Even if key markets have been experiencing low growth due to the economic collapse and recovery, the accessories market proves as an opportunity to LVMH for growth. Selective retailing provides an opportunity to LVMH in one of the most growing markets in the world: China. Even though selective retailing has seen a decline in growth due to restrictions in spending due to less amount of travelers; however, China tourism is predicted to show a robust expansion. The economic liberalization; as well as, the constant development and transformation in China boosted their tourism industry. Some indicatorsÃ have been predicting that China would be a leading tourism destination by 2020. Therefore, LVMH has been focused on launching its selective retailing in China in order to take an advantageous stance from this growing tourism in terms of revenue.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Cuban Revoultion and Cuban Film - Essay Example Cuban women in this rural peasant society were expected to marry at an early age and usually to an older man who would be dependent on her work in the fields, as well as the work of the offspring she would bring him. She was about 14 when she was married to an older man, and not long after that had a child. The Cuban Revolution of 1959 gave birth to a fresh and vital national cinema that had not been seen in Cuba previously. The ICAIC (The Cuban Institute of Cinematographic Art and Industry) was created. Less than three months after the Batista regime was overthrown. Influenced by Contemporary, auteur-led film-making from the French New Wave to Brazilian Cinema Novo, a new generation of young, dynamic film-makers led to a creative explosion of challenging films and documentaries. The ICAIC became a haven for Non-conformist film-making and Latin American directors seeking refuge from political repression. Three of the most significant and internationally acclaimed of these new directors were Toms Gutirrez Alea, Santiago Alvarez (a documentary film-maker) and Julio Garca Espinosa. Alea is best known for his feature Memories of Underdevelopment (1968), a portrait of the bourgeois Sergio - a would-be writer who is alienated from post-revolution Cuba due to his former status. As he observes the new changes, both political and cultural, his distance forces him to confront the prejudices of his class and himself. It was this same year that Espinosa presented his manifesto 'For an Imperfect Cinema' when he argued that it was more important to make gritty, honest films that tried to create a dialogue with the audience rather than wash over them with high, glossy production values. The first feature by Humberto Sols was also a defining film in Cuban cinema from the 60s. Lucia (1968), is a trilogy of stories based on women named Lucia at different points in history: 1895, 1933 and the 60s. It may be deemed an example of Feminist film-making as each tale examines the changing roles and attitudes of Cuban women. One Way or Another (1974), by Sara Gmez, was one of the most Revered, quasi-documentary films studying gender relations and the survival of Machismo. Her untimely death (from an acute asthma attack in 1974) was a great loss for Cuban cinema. Portrait of Teresa (1979), by Pastor Vega, continued this Feminist exploration with the gritty portrayal of the demise of a marriage and it proved to be Cuba's most controversial film in twenty years. Lucia is actually three films in one, a historical survey of three periods in the modern day history of Cuba, seen from the perspective of three different women with the same given name who participate in the struggle for liberation which characterized these periods. In 1895, Lucia is seduced into betraying Cuban forces led by her own brother during the war for independence from Spain. In 1933, Lucia leaves her upper middle-class family and becomes involved through her lover in the overthrow of the Cuban dictator Machado and the ultimate betrayal of that revolution by the "pseudo-democracy" then established; a betrayal which leads ultimately to the establishment of the Batista dictatorship of the early 50's. In the 1960's, Lucia is taught how to read and write during Cuba's literacy campaign, and in the process she learns of her own rights as a woman under the new socialist dispensation, leading to a confrontation with her husband's
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Online multimedia cannot compete against the traditional CD multimedia systems.IN REPORT FORMAT - Essay Example Here I will show how the traditional CD technology was better as compared to new online multimedia technology. The term media is employed in difference to media which simply make use of conventional types of hand-produced or printed material. Multimedia comprises a mixture of animation, video, audio, interactivity, still images and text content types (Kenneth, 1998). Multimedia is an elderly notion that has been specified fresh meaning by the computer industry in the course of their hard work to make multimedia compatible computing platforms. If we define Multimedia in the scholarly sense then it will be called as the Ã¢â¬Å"interactive dramatization of informationÃ¢â¬ . Multimedia technology employs the computer to unite animation, text, audio, and graphics and complete motion video in the user control. However mixture of these functions have been obtainable for several years, it has been hard to merge them so that the non-technical consumer is able to control them and thus produce documents or functions that add in all these features. Usually, putting collectively such arrangement necessitates the abilities of a computer programmer or an information technology professional. In the pervious few years there has been infrequent employ made of multimedia resources together in academia and in business, however this has been mainly driven by exper t persons working ad hoc and in separation. Multimedia is generally played and recorded, accessed or displayed by information processing multimedia devices, like that a computerized or an electronic device, however it can be a fraction of a live multimedia performance (Parker et al, 1996). This section presents the evolution of the multimedia technology from its origin to present online multimedia technology. In the year 1965 the expression Multimedia was employed to explain the Ã¢â¬Å"Exploding Plastic InevitableÃ¢â¬ , a performance that combined live cinema, experimental
Discuss and evaluate the sociological explanations, for the differences in UK educational achievement in schools related to gender, ethnicity, social class and the ' hidden curriculum' - Essay Example difference in their levels of intelligence, organizational ability, professional ambitions, encouragement from family to acquire quality education and the resultant upward social mobility of individuals. The 1944 Education Act was milestone legislation for the improvement of studentÃ¢â¬â¢s academic and personal progress and also for the improvement of social and welfare policies. Frozen milk in winter, free medical examination and transport payment from regional education authority were some of the highlights of the Act. It was a whole child welfare policy similar to the Every Child Matters green paper of 2003. There have been several changes in Britain to ensue the practice of the Act in the following six decades. The United Kingdom is now an expanded community with other European nationalities and a greater requirement for professionals at various levels. The earlier culturally homogenous population in schools is now comprised of many faiths and cultures. Therefore, the realization of the Act is now extensively challenging when compared to the society that prevailed in 1944. The challenges in implementing the Act and measuring the outcomes are basically from the changes in the moral, spiritual, cultural and social progress and personalized learning. The 1944 Education Act demanded LEAÃ¢â¬â¢s to offer state funded education for students till the age of fifteen, based on their aptitude, abilities and age. The prilimnary step to substantiate the Act was the provision of adequate schools. Though the Act did not specify the nature of secondary school it gave strong stipulation to increase the number of technical, grammar and secondary schools. But the number of schools were restricted to grammar and secondary schools with a few number of technical schools. The Act was reinterpreted in the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s and a comprehensive education was rapidly expanded with schools like academies and specialist schools. The shift in school designation has catered to the pupil of different
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Virtual Culture - Essay Example Our intertwined lives have made these Disney figures as much a part of our family as our own parents or siblings. Information technology has made our lives easier and more complex at the same time. Working professionals are on a 24/7 duty thanks to e-media (mobile and email). This has created the parental responsibility of parents even harder. In these difficult times, the virtual culture can serve a part of the parent's role by portraying the good and evil to the children and instilling the core cultural values in the children's minds.  The virtual culture created by the information age is apparent in our lives as well and especially for children. Since most of the virtual figures are projected towards children, it is they who get inspired and affected the most. Every child searches for the Harry Potter in his/her own life and become a part of that magical world. So it is now up to the creationists of the virtual cultures how to influence the children in shaping up their lives. As children gain easier access to information, the role of virtual culture will become ever so important in creating better leaders for tomorrow.  Each and everything in our lives can be segmented into either good or bad. Each thought will have two perspectives i.e. either it will be accepted or it will be rejected. Same is the case with newly establishing virtual culture. Conservatives may argument that each society has strong roots in its heritage and history that makes up the culture and traditions. For these conservatives, adopting the new way will be difficult and may even be dismissed as a totally not acceptable change. For these fundamentalists, cultural traditions will definitely be eroded from adopting the virtual culture. The values created by their ancestors that have built the culture will change and it will be considered as a bad change.  On the other hand, sociologists may argue that culture is an ever changing entity. Newer values and beliefs are entrenched each day in our lives which gradually changes that cultural tradition. For these theorists, change is a positive force and these changes enhance the cultural traditions. Change fosters progression and since the information revolution is already bringing the virtual culture to our boundaries, it only seems sensible to embrace the change with arms wide open. In these changing times, with children coming into contact with information more rapidly than most adults, the virtual culture can create the same values that twenty years ago our parents used to teach us. From this point of view, the application of virtual culture looks good.  What image of this country do US movies and television shows give to people abroad Hollywood is considered as the heart of the movie industry in the world. Movie standards are set according to American movies as they are considered as the benchmark for quality. Similarly American television and soaps are amongst the most watched in the whole world. So are these movies and TV shows watched because they portray the reality The answer to this question is 'No'. As with most products in the world, movies and TV programs only show things what the viewers want to see. This viewer oriented
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Finance and Accounting - Essay Example Both these ratios address the bankruptcy issue. According to the calculated ratios, Qatar TelecomÃ¢â¬â¢s liquidity position seems to be strong as compared to Vodafone in both the years 2010 and 2011. Qatar TelecomÃ¢â¬â¢s personal liquidity ratios have deteriorated in 2011, compared to 2010, but then even the company has a stronger position as compared to Vodafone, which almost has balanced proportion between its current liabilities and its current assets. VodafoneÃ¢â¬â¢s personal current and acid test ratio has reduced in the year 2011 and it currently has a ratio of 0.49:1 and a 0.48:1 current and acid test ratio. Gearing Ratios Gearing ratios analyze the proportion of debt to equity within the financing of a company. These ratios illustrate as to how much a company is financed via and how much via equity. A company having more loans and less equity is said to be highly geared and is considered to be more risky but having said that, it can never be stated that a low geared com pany is good, since it is considered to be taking less initiative, hence a balance is to be maintained. According to the calculated ratios, Qatar Telecom is highly geared as compared to Vodafone. The ratios clearly illustrates that the QtelÃ¢â¬â¢s debt financing is 1.59 times its equity financing. Qtel has reduced its debt financing by paying off some of its debt as compared to the year 2010 but this has not been a significant reduction. QtelÃ¢â¬â¢s debts almost amount to 61% (0.61) of their total assets, hence it can be seen that the company has heavily relied upon debts. Vodafone on the other hand has too little debt financing and it can be seen from the ratios that the company prefers equity financing over debt financing. As...By June 2008, Vodafone received was awarded telecom operating license within the country, making the company as the second mobile phone service provider within the country. Vodafone started its services within Qatar on 1st March 2009. This ratio provides an idea to the investors as to the return that that would extract from the company. The return on investment for Qtel has improved and has increased by 1.79% (5.82-4.03). VodafoneÃ¢â¬â¢s return on investment has also improved but the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s losses would not be able to make them give any good to their investors. Since both the companies operate within the same sector, a fair comparison between the performances of the two would be more fruitful. The best technique available to analyze the financial performance of both the companies would be to use ratio analysis. There are various ratios which can be used to evaluate the performance. Following are the ratios which have been calculated to assess the financial performance of both the telecom service providers. From the ratios, it can be derived that the financial performance of Qtel is way better than Vodafone but it can be argued that Vodafone is still within its early and growing phase and that the company has shown good prospects, hence it can improve with the passage of time.
Monday, September 23, 2019
The Great Gatsby -The Corruption of the American Dream-how its original idealism has been replaced by materialism and greed - Essay Example It was a reminder of his poverty. Gatsbys parents were poor farmers, whom he had never accepted as his parents. .. He developed out of an idealization of the American Dream... One day, while attending a small Lutheran college in southern Minnesota and feeling dismayed by having to work as a janitor to put himself through school, Gatsby spots the moored yacht of Dan Cody. In an action that changes the young boys life, Cody welcomes him aboard his yacht and introduces him to fine living. Gatsby becomes the protegÃ ¨ of the wealthy goldminer and lives with him until Cody dies. With some wealth of his own and dreams of more, he goes into the army(Media Adaptations). enhances his chase of the Ã¢â¬Å"golden fleece.Ã¢â¬ Gatsby is so infatuated with Daisy that he could not see beneath her beauty; Ã¢â¬Å"He found her excitingly desirable.Ã¢â¬ Jordan tells Nick that; Ã¢â¬Å"the officer looked at Daisy...in a way that every young girl wants to be looked at some time.Ã¢â¬ He wants her because other men want her. The difference in their social status lured him to her even more. Ã¢â¬Å"He took her because he had no real right to touch her hand.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He becomes impressed with her beautiful home and many boyfriends(Media Adaptations). Gatsby truly believes that money is the obstacle between him and Daisy; the truth is Daisy does not love him. She is not capable of loveing. Daisy is fickle, but Gatsby does not see this, he convinces himself that if he gets wealth, Daisy will choose him above her other boyfriends. For Gatsby, the American Dream means wealth and Daisy. Gatsby goes to war comforted by the fact that Daisy is waiting for him. However, Daisy does no such thing, her loyalty goes to the highest bidder, Tom Buchanan. It is obvious that neither Gatsby nor Daisy knows what love really is. Daisys requirement list for a husband has only one item,
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Water Pollution Essay More people die from dirty water and poor sanitation in Africa, than acts of violence , including war(Ã¢â¬Å"Why is Clean Water so important?Ã¢â¬ ). Children are especially targeted for disease, because their immune system is smaller, and they are younger (Ã¢â¬Å"Why Water?Ã¢â¬ ). Africa has many poor countries, and many people are dying from diseases in water. Every day, people have to walk over five miles to get a bucket of water for the family they are in. Most of the time, the only water people can find is dirty. Dirty water causes children to develop diseases every year. In fact, over eighty percent of disease is caused by unclean water (Drop in the Bucket). Many organizations are desperately working to give third-world countries the water that people need. The organizations want to build a well for every village in Africa, so there is no more disease breaking out, and people want to reduce the death toll of 2,000 a day, to a much lower amount(Ã¢â¬Å"Water AidÃ¢â¬ ). In Africa alone, people spend 40 billion hours every year just walking for water. Women and children usually bear the burden of water collection, walking miles to the nearest source, which is unprotected and likely to make them sick (Ã¢â¬Å"Why Water?Ã¢â¬ ). There are many ways one can help Africa reduce their pollution, especially in water. One way that takes the least amount of effort, but makes a big difference, is to donate to an organization. There are so many of them that are serving Africa, and the more donations, the better. People want to end poverty right? Another method of impact is to never waste water. If one cannot finish water, give it to a plant, or save it for later. But never throw it away. The last method of impact is try to reduce the pollution in communities around you. If the world has too much pollution, AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s water will end up like AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s, and our population will reduce and reduce, and at some point, the world might even end. To sum it up, the pollution in Africa is on the rise, and people need help to get clean water. First world countries like America have no idea how much people waste clean water, and how lucky those people are to have it. So in the future, donÃ¢â¬â¢t waste water, one will never know who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have it. Works Cited Drop in the Bucket. Drop in the Bucket. N.p., Jan. 2013. Web. 30 Jan. 2013. What Makes Clean Water So Important? Blue Planet Network. Blue Planet Network, 12 Jan. 2013. Web. 29 Jan. 2013. Worlds Top 10 Most Polluted Places. Worlds Top 10 Most Polluted Places: Scientific American. Scientific American, Jan. 2013. Web. 29 Jan. 2013.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Causes and Effects of the Second Boer War THE SECOND BOER WAR Ã¢â¬Å"Account for the outbreak of the South African WarÃ¢â¬ Table of Contents (Jump to) Part I: Outline; Part II: Background to the War; Part III: The Jameson Raid; Part IV: Aftermath of the Raid; Part V: Course and Effects of the War References ________________________________________________________________________ Part I:Ã Outline This paper is a descriptive narration of the Second Boer War, also called the South African War. Since the crux of the thesis question is the actual outbreak of the war, this paper lays emphasis to its background, which dates to the time of rivalry between the Afrikaners and the British in South Africa. In this part, a reference to the First Boer War becomes unavoidable, because understanding the second war without relation to the first war is without foundation, since the two constitute a continuum of events. However, the description of the first war is very brief. In devoting greater space to the second war, it explains this from its starting point, the policy of heavy taxation on the high number of uitlanders by the beleaguered Boers. It then makes a detailed exposition of the episode that actually precipitated the war, the Jameson Raid, with an illustration of the event, the people involved in it, and the importance of this event. It then proceeds to illustrate the significant st atistics of the war, its results and its legacy. Part II: Background to the WarÃ A proper understanding of the Boer War necessitates a look into the backdrop of the history of colonisation of the continent by European countries and their stiff competition with each other for control. Following British attempts to dominate the Afrikaners or the Boers, consisting mostly of the Dutch in the early part of the 19th century, the Afrikaners fled eastwards in large numbers in search of empty lands, in an exodus called the Ã¢â¬ËGreat TrekÃ¢â¬â¢, (Walker, 1934, p. 59) where they came into confrontation with Zulu tribal warlords, subdued them and created the independent territories of Natal, Transvaal and Orange Free State. The chance discovery of diamonds in Kimberley accentuated Afrikaner-British hostility. It was in this scenario that the British tried to defeat the Afrikaners for control of these mines. In January 1879, the Zulus, numbering 22,000 routed the British comprehensively. Although they were able to re-establish their hold in just six months, a regrouped r esistance under the premier, Paul Kruger in late 1880-early 1881 captured Majuba, a British stronghold, signalling British defeat in what is referred to as the First Boer War. (Chamberlain, 1996, pp. 267-282) The roots of the Second Boer War were also economic in nature, and reached their full potential for conflict under some individuals committed single-mindedly and almost fanatically to the growth of the British Empire. As Britain was licking its wounds, the discovery of another precious metal, this time gold, in Witwatersrand ignited its appetite for conquest. The most important figure around whom the second war revolved was Cecil Rhodes. This quintessential imperialist and diehard believer in Anglo-Saxon racial superiority, who made his fortune at the Kimberley mines and had become a millionaire at 24, scaled the political ladder of South Africa with luck, enterprise and guile. He also fitted the bill in the context of the dynamics of the empire at the time. When the empire felt it was losing out rapidly to America and Germany in terms of industrial growth and the navy, its pride, it tacitly encouraged such self-financed, maverick entrepreneurs in opportunities such as those present in Kimberley. (Denis Judd, 1996, pp. 117-119) Cecil Rhodes, referred to sometimes as the Ã¢â¬ËColossus of AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢, could take credit for giving the British Empire two new eponymous colonies, having a country named after him, and rising to become one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s richest man of his time. (Daily Mail, 14th Sept. 1996, p. 32) Rhodes was one of the several people from many nations who had come to exploit these mines and build a fortune; these outsiders, or uitlanders, as they were called, soon started outnumbering the Boers, by a ratio of anywhere between 4:1 and 10:1. The Boers, apprehensive about losing their clout, denied them franchise, which the uitlanders saw as a rejection of a right; KrugerÃ¢â¬â¢s rationale for denying them the franchise was that if they were given it, they might demand the Republic, too. The more glaring reasons were economic and social, for most of the money that was being made from the mines was reaching foreign hands. (Marais, 1961, pp. 1 and 2) So, the government of Kruger passed laws discriminating against the uitlanders, most of whom were British. These laws required lengthy periods of residence to qualify for the franchise, levy of excessive taxes, and exclusion from the lucrative liquor trade, in which the Boers held monopoly. (Olson Shadle, 1996, p. 46) The social factor was no less important Ã¢â¬âthe gold that was struck in the Rand was in the most backward area of the Republic. The Boers who had been living here were poor, and were graziers for several generations. This stood in stark contrast to the highly urbanised and educated average uitlander gold prospector, irrespective of which country he came from, thus aggravating the difficulty in assimilation with the uitlanders. (Marais, 1961, pp. 1 and 2) Part III:Ã The Jameson Raid Deciding to launch a direct, frontal attack on the Boers right into the heartland of Transvaal to teach them a lesson for their acts was Leander Starr Jameson. A doctor by profession, he had earned RhodesÃ¢â¬â¢ trust and had risen to the position of Resident Commissioner immediately after the absorption of the important British territory, Bechuanaland, into Cape Town. (Sillery, 1952, pp. 77, 78) Owing accountability to Rhodes and not to the Crown, Jameson carried out what was to become one of the most important milestones in the colony. (1963, p. 108) The enterprise had the blessing of Rhodes, who was now the Prime Minister of Cape. With the huge resources and money he had at his disposal, he sponsored a major part of the raid. His motive for backing the raid was to remove the homespun and uneducated Boers once and for all from the mining business and the political establishment of Transvaal, and to unite all the uitlanders under the British banner. (Olson Shadle, 1996, p. 46) He helped Jameson purchase guns; these were transported legally till as far as Kimberley, till where he held command. Beyond this point, they were transported under camouflage using the De Beers Company which he owned, as conduit. (Rotberg Shore, 1988, p. 265) The plan was to attack the government from Pitsani, a coveted and extremely crucial area on the border with Transvaal. Rhodes took a little time to fix the date for the raid; during this time, Joseph Chamberlain, Colonial Secretary, was aware that the raid was being planned, and that a force had been stationed already on the border, but was not sure when it would materialise. (Lockhart Woodhouse, 1963, p. 314) The High Commissioner for South Africa, Sir Henry Loch, too, calculated that a British occupation of the Transvaal was the surest way of reasserting its supremacy. The suspicion in London at this time was that the Kruger administration was in close contact with the German Kaiser, Wilhelm II, and that their alliance would wreck BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s interests. They also feared German designs on another important post, Delagoa Bay. In a situation like this, Chamberlain had expressed with apprehension the feeling that Ã¢â¬Å"[t]he German inclination to take the Transvaal under (Boer) protection is a very serious thing. To have them meddling at Pretoria and Johannesburg would be fatal to our position and our influence in South AfricaÃ¢â¬ (Robinson, Gallagher Denny, 1961, p. 419) It was speculated that the raid would happen anytime in the middle of December. The date placed Chamberlain in a piquant situation, since his mind was preoccupied with the spat England was having with the US over the Venezuelan border. If the raid got postponed, his attention towards an equally pressing matter would have been diverted, and his position endangered. Accordingly, he wanted the raid to either happen right then, or be postponed for a year or two. On the other hand, Rhodes kept vacillating because he wanted the raid to take place on December 27, when a national conference of KrugerÃ¢â¬â¢s party, the National Union was to take place, which would divert the BoersÃ¢â¬â¢ attention. Jameson, however, was restless; he was already up in Pitsani with members of the Mashonaland Mounted Police, and with 300 other police in Bechuanaland. His logic was that if the raid got postponed beyond the first week of January, the Boers would get scent of it. Sensing that the disagreement ov er the issue of the date would be fatal to the execution of his plan, he took the plunge himself, and started the attack on December 29, taking the Boers by surprise, but also causing utter shock and disbelief in Rhodes and Chamberlain. (Lockhart Woodhouse, 1963, pp. 315-324) Part IV:Ã Aftermath of the Raid Far from having the desired result, the plan that Rhodes, Chamberlain and others had devised went awry. Rather than intimidate the Boers, it jolted them into action. First, the army led by Kruger humiliated the doctor and took him captive. (Cecil, 1989, p. 285) By 1899, the BoersÃ¢â¬â¢ retaliation, led again by Kruger, had turned into a full-fledged war against the British, an outcome that came to be known as the Second Boer War. Britain fought this war, the culmination of the frantic efforts of three competing European powers, Britain, France and Germany in the great game for the control of Africa, known by the popular appellation, Ã¢â¬ËScramble for AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢ because what was at stake was not only wealth, but the very prestige of the British Empire. (Pakenham, 1993, p. 105) Starting with an army of 12,000 compared with the nearly 60,000 on the Boer side, the British sustained heavy losses initially, when the Boers invaded the British strongholds of Natal, Rhodesia and Cape Colony, in addition to laying siege on Ladysmith, Mafeking and Kimberley. It was when Lord Frederick Roberts replaced Sir Redvers Bullers as Commander-in-Chief that fortunes gradually began to change. (Olson Shadle, 1996, p. 46) When the Boers seemed unrelenting, within the first six months, BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s ablest commanders, Paul Roberts and Kitchener, led a great battle, in which they defeated Kruger. The Boers were compelled to surrender Pretoria, as also retire from Natal and Cape Colony. Although Kruger fled into exile, the Boers continued to resist through guerrilla warfare and frustrate the British. It was not until 1902 that they could finally put an end to the war. (Townsend Peake, 1941, p. 86) The outbreak of the war led to RhodesÃ¢â¬â¢ resignation as CapeÃ¢â¬â¢s premier. (Williams, 1921, p. 270) Part V:Ã Course and Effects of the War The longest war Britain ever fought in the span of a century between the fall of Napoleon in the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 and World War I, the Second Boer War was exorbitant for the nation, costing it well over Ã £ 200 million in taxpayersÃ¢â¬â¢ money. The war, during whose course Britain deployed close to half a million men, consumed 22,000 of them, and about a third of this casualty figure on the Boer side. It had a combination of regular and guerrilla warfare. Initially, both sides fought regular field battles; it took the British side almost a year to capture the two capitals, Bloemfontein of Orange Free State and Pretoria of Transvaal. This was the time needed to quell the regular army, but once the two republics resorted to guerrilla tactics to neutralise the loss of their capitals, fortunes reversed. So consummate was the skill of guerrilla tactics on the Boer side that Britain had to take on more than 30,000 of such expert guerrilla fighters in two countries, about the s ize of Western Europe. (Pakenham, 1993, p. 107) The British sought to bring the Afrikaners down to their knees by following a highly controversial policy of imprisoning the wives and children of these guerrilla fighters in concentration camps. This policy was carried out to offset the guerrilla tactic of living off the lands and returning to the farmsteads whenever they ran out of supplies of food and water. (Grundlingh, 1999, p. 21) Unable to survive in the hostile and unhygienic conditions in these camps, close to 28,000 died, in addition to 14,000 slaves. (Pakenham, 1993, p. 107) The enormity of this toll can perhaps be understood if one were to take into account the total population of Afrikaners in the region at that time Ã¢â¬âit was roughly 10 times the number that lost their lives. In other words, in less than just three years, the population was reduced by a tenth. Some analysts see this is a real forerunner for the concentration camps the Nazis put in place some decades later. Only the size and number of the concentration varied; they were both based on the same ultra-nationalistic, jingoistic designs. (Grundlingh, 1999, p. 21) The political map of Southern Africa was redrawn, by which two districts were annexed from the Transvaal and attached to Natal, in addition to a substantial portion of a third. (Marais, 1961, p. 3) One of the bitter legacies of this war was that rancour was so deeply entrenched in the minds of the Afrikaners towards the British that they would not even have any interaction with each other for nearly the next four decades. (Grundlingh, 1999, p. 21) The war showed up the true nature of British involvement in the country Ã¢â¬âa greed for gems disguised in the insignificant, near non-issue of citizenship rights for the uitlanders. It also showed the extent to which the British government had fallen prey to the business interests of the mining industry that a handful of Englishmen and Jewish businessmen had come to capture. (Hale, 1940, p. 193) By the terms of the treaty that ended the war, the Vereeniging Treaty, the British agreed to favourable terms, respecting the wishes of the Boers. Among these were liberty to continue with the Dutch language, self-government later to Transvaal and Orange Free State, and no special taxes for meeting war costs. Despite the enormity of the costs, the war and the following treaty paved the way for the union of South Africa. (Townsend Peake, 1941, p. 86) Britain agreed to pay up Ã £ three million as compensation for the loss of lives, and a loan of Ã £ 35 million towards reconstruction costs. The victory turned out to be a pyrrhic one, as it led to a complete loss of face politically, since self-government was restored in the two republics, and they would be incorporated into a South African Dominion with total freedom, the same as that enjoyed by nations such as Australia and Canada. (Pakenham, 1993, p. 107) References Benson, J. D., (1996), B., In Historical Dictionary of the British Empire, Olson, J. S. Shadle, R. S. (Eds.) (pp. 93-229), Greenwood Press, Westport, CT. 1996. Ã¢â¬Å"Can TV Really Capture the Incredible Adventures of the Colossus of Africa?Ã¢â¬ , The Daily Mail (London, England), September 14, 1996, p. 32. Cecil, L., (1989), Wilhelm II: Prince and Emperor, 1859-1900, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. Chamberlain, J., (1996), VI, Ã¢â¬Å"Boers and Britons in South Africa, 1890-1902.Ã¢â¬ In Divide and Rule: The Partition of Africa, 1880-1914 (pp. 261-330), Praeger, Westport, CT. Grundlingh, A.,1999, Ã¢â¬Å"The Bitter Legacy of the Boer WarÃ¢â¬ , History Today, Vol. 49, p. 21. Retrieved April 24, 2006, from Questia database. Hale, O. J., (1940), Publicity and Diplomacy: With Special Reference to England and Germany, 1890-1914, D. Appleton-Century, New York. Lockhart, J. G., Woodhouse, C. M. (1963), Cecil Rhodes: The Colossus of Southern Africa, Macmillan, New York. Marais, J. S., (1961), The Fall of Krugers Republic, Clarendon Press, Oxford. D. J., (1996), Empire: The British Imperial Experience from 1765 to the Present, Basic Books, New York. Olson, J. S. Shadle, R. S. (Eds.)., (1996). Historical Dictionary of the British Empire, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT. Pakenham, T., (1993), 5. Ã¢â¬Å"The Boer WarÃ¢â¬ . In Great Powers and Little Wars: The Limits of Power, Ion, A. H. Errington, E. J. (Eds.) (pp. 105-120), Praeger Publishers, Westport, CT. (1963), 4. Ã¢â¬Å"The Age of Rhodes.Ã¢â¬ In The Politics of Partnership (pp. 75-120), Penguin Books, Baltimore, MD. Robinson, R., Gallagher, J., Denny, A., (1961), Africa and the Victorians: The Climax of Imperialism in the Dark Continent, St. Martins Press, New York. Rotberg, R. I., Shore, M. F., (1988), The Founder: Cecil Rhodes and the Pursuit of Power, Oxford University Press, New York. Sillery, A., (1952), The Bechuanaland Protectorate, Oxford University Press, London. Townsend, M. E., Peake, C. H., (1941), European Colonial Expansion since 1871 (W. C. Langsam, Ed.), J. B. Lippincott, Chicago. Williams, B., (1921), Cecil Rhodes, Henry Holt Company, New York.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Changes In The NHL Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the past there were more goals, less penalties, and never any talk about an Olympic size rink, all that has changed in the last few years. The NHL has changed since the introduction of, the new crease rule, the enforcement of obstruction, and the request for an Olympic size rink. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The new crease rule is the most controversial rule change that the NHL has ever introduced. There has been less goals since the players have not been allowed to have even a toe in the goal crease when a player scores a goal. The old rule was that players were allowed to be in the crease as long as they donÃ¢â¬â¢t interfere with the goalie. The NHL has since made the crease smaller so that there is less chance of a player being in the crease, but that hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t changed the fact that players are still in the crease when a player scores a goal. On average there has been at least two goals a night called back since the new crease rule. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The obstruction rule has been one of the best rule changes ever in the NHL. Players are not allowed to interfere with other players if they are going into the play were the puck is. This new rule has cleaned up the game of hockey tremendously. Some of the obstruction calls are, obstruction hooking, obstruction holding, obstruction tripping, so on, and so forth. When the obstruction rule first came into effect there was way more penalties, now the penalties are becoming less. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The request for an Olympic size rink still has not been approved by the NHL. The NHL has talked about upgrading their regular size rink to an Olympic size one. If the NHL comes to an agreement to go to the Olympic size rink, the game would be a lot faster, a lot more open, and there would be many more great set up plays.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Contemporary Issues in Cognitive Developmental Psychology The stage in which a child learns is very important in psychology. Piaget, Vygotsky, and Bruner are the most popular psychologists who have contributed to developmental learning. The issue still among psychologists today is the debate on teaching, and how children should be taught. There is the, "talk and chalk" method where the teacher teaches the whole class interactively and the children can participate when asked to. Piaget believed in student centred learning and not group learning. The advantage of this method of teaching is that they are all going up a level at the same time; there might be a few that fail to follow but the teacher can push them. Children can also start to interact with each other and get to know other people in their classroom. This could also reduce prejudice at a young age. If they work as a group they also learn as a group, but the downside of this is they may lose their sense of individuality. And as a group they may feel as, "one." If they were to do a practical there would be one child who would be the leader, which would not benefit to the other children. The other method of teaching is the individual/ group method. This is where Piaget's individual learning programme enters. Vygotsky's spiral curriculum would be useful in this method since it opens complex ideas so that they can be presented at simplified levels. Each student should find their zone of actual development and then the teacher should be the outer circle so they can go to their zone of proximal development. The disadvantage of this is the cost of student centred learning. At the moment we have whole class teaching and there are the ups and downs of that but if the individual learning took place it will improve due to the individuals needs being noticed and processed. Individual learning can also be structured by scaffolding so the child's attempt to understand new ideas will be done with even more
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Treatments for Depression Clinical depression is a disease that involves feelings of sadness lasting for longer than two weeks and is often accompanied by a loss of interest in life, hopelessness, and decreased energy. (3) Depression affects 340 million people in the world today. One in every 4 women and one in every 10 men develop depression during their lifetime. About half the cases of depression are untreated and about 10 to 15 percent of all depressed people commit suicide. (4) There are many different types of depression including major depression, Bipolar Disorder, Dysthymia, and Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), and there are different degrees of depression ranging from less severe to major severe. (3) There are various ways to treat depression, but what most people do not know is that depression is one of the most treatable mental illnesses. There are a variety of drugs called antidepressants which help to increase certain neurotransmitters in your brain. There are also various types of counseling, psychotherapy, self-help techniques, and alternative therapies to help a person overcome depression. In many cases, doctors combine different forms of therapies and treatments to produce the best result in depression cases. (1) The most widely used therapy today is antidepressants. Antidepressants are usually divided into three categories: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI), Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCA), and Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MOAI). (1) SSRIs raise the level of serotonin in the brain because low levels of this neurotransmitter have been connected to depression. TCAs increase the level of norepinephrine in the brain. MOAIs increase the levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in ... ... because of the many dangerous side affects associated with them. Maybe one day there will be a cure for depression just as we are searching for a cure for cancer or AIDS, and then people will not have to deal with this disease that causes them to lose 10 percent of the productive years during their lives.(4) References 1)Depression Treatment and Help http://www.about-depression.com/treatments-for-depression/treatment-overview.php 2)50+Health-Home/Treatments for Depression http://www.50plushealth.co.uk/index.cfm?articleid=461 3)Other Treatments for Depression http://www.ehealthmd.com/library/depression/DEP_other.html 4)Depression- Net, Info on Depression http://www.depression-net.com/ 5)Major Depressive Disorder: Treatment http://www.mentalhealth.com/rx/p23-md01.html#Head_2 6)Depression Treatment http://www.apa.org/journals/anton.html
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Organizational Structure may be defined as how directors and supervisors divide, group, and organize work between different employees and sections. Other important definition may be defined as: Ã¢â¬Å" An Organizational Structure is based on activities such as undertaking allotment, coordination, and supervising, which are directed towards the accomplishment and fulfilment of organisational ends and aims Ã¢â¬ An organisation can be structured in many different ways, depending on their aims, purposes and longterm ends. The construction of an organisation will find the manners in which it operates and performs. Many Organizations have a Hierarchy, but non all. Organizational Structure has 6 chief elements:1. WORK Specialization:Work Specialization is the grade to which organisational undertakings are sub-divided into single occupations. It is besides known as Ã¢â¬Å" Division of labour Ã¢â¬ . It is the specialisation of labour in specific, limited undertakings and like functions. It is a critical component of Job Structure and attributes a major function in success, if it is truly utilised. Wor Specialization is more efficient and effectual for directors, in order to carry through organisational positions. Directors find it much easier to happen gifted forces and develop them to execute specific and certain undertakings. As Repetition improves the ability of an single to execute a certain undertaking with lesser clip consumed. Basically, the occupations are assigned to specialise personal or persons. Therefore, the persons perform those undertakings or carry through those aims in which they are specialized or are trained to roll up. The kernel of Work Specialization is that an full occupation being done by an person, it is broken down into figure of stairss, with each measure being completed by a separate person. Therefore, single perform their expertness in specialised undertaking instead than the full occupation. It can be elaborated with the undermentioned illustration. FOR EXAMPLE ; In Formula 1 Motorsports Racing, Rushing squads Managers hire mechanics that are specialized in certain undertakings ( during Pit Stops ) . Some are adept in replacing Front tyres, others are adept in replacing Rear tyres. Similarly, some are adept in Raising Car from the back side and others are specialized to execute the duty of a Ã¢â¬Å" Lolly-Pop Man Ã¢â¬ . Therefore, these squads hire mechanics and delegate them occupations that, they are specialized to execute.2. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization is the 2nd component of Organizational Structure and follows Work Specialization. Departmentalization is the manner, work and duties are distributed in amongst different sections. Departmentalization refers to the procedure of grouping activities into sections. Ã¢â¬Å" Division of labour Ã¢â¬ creates specializers who need coordination. This coordination is facilitated by grouping specializers together in sections. Departmentalization has the following chief types:DEPARTMENTALIZATION BY FUNCTIONS:In Function Departmentalization, Departments are formed to group activities by Ã¢â¬Å" map Ã¢â¬ . Such as in a concern house, the construction might hold a Gross saless Department, a Marketing Department, a Purchase Department and a Human Resource Department etc. All these Departments are different from eachother on the footing of maps, they perform and the duties. Due to similar accomplishments and cognition, Ã¢â¬Å" Economies of Scale Ã¢â¬ can be achieved. The chief advantage of this type of Departmentalization is that, it can be used in all organisations, with mention to their ends and aims, and it is more efficient and effectual, as the people who posses the same expertness and accomplishments, are governed in a remarkable section.DEPARTMENTALIZATION BY PRODUCTS:Activities that are grouped by similar Ã¢â¬Å" Product Lines or Product Categories Ã¢â¬ . Undertakings are grouped harmonizing to merchandises and services, therefore go forthing all activities related to the merchandise or the service under a individual director or a remarkable caput. Each major merchandise country in the corporation is under the authorization of a senior director who is specializer in, and is responsible for, everything related to the merchandise line. This departmentalization helps an organisation to recognize its strong merchandise lines and weak links, additions Accountability. For E.g ; Unilever has different merchandise lines such as Dove, Axe and Fair & A ; Lovely etc.DEPARTMENTALIZATION BY GEOGRAPHY:Departments are formed on the footing of Ã¢â¬Å" Geography and Territory Ã¢â¬ ; such as North, South, East and West etc. If an organisation Ã¢â¬Ës clients are geographically dispersed, it can group occupations based on geographics. For illustration, Coca Cola has developed a Organizational Structure administering districts, the North American sector and the International sector, whic h includes the Pacific Rim, the European Community, Northeast Europe, Africa and Latin America groups. COCA COLA GEOGRAPHICAL STRUCTUREDEPARTMENTALIZATION BY Procedure:Grouping activities on the footing of Ã¢â¬Å" Product or service or client flow Ã¢â¬ . Each procedure require different accomplishments and techniques at different phases of its production or readying. Therefore, this Departmentalization helps the organisation to use the expertness of persons at different phases of production. Therefore, sections are followed due to the difference in defined construction. For E.g ; A whole procedure is to be followed for obtaining a Passport, Verification, Documents Submission etc, all from different sections.DEPARTMENTALIZATION BY CUSTOMER:Grouping activities on the footing of Ã¢â¬Å" common clients or types of clients Ã¢â¬ Jobs may be grouped harmonizing to the type of client served by the organisation. The premise is that clients in each section have a common set of jobs and demands that can outdo be met by specializers. For e.g ; Law Firms provide services to General Public, high profile persons and Large Corporations.3. CHAIN OF COMMAND:Chain of Command is an unbroken line of Authority that extends from the top degree executive, direction to the lowest station, echeleon and clarifies who reports to whom. It is a Hierarchy which shows the Chain of Command and authorization, making a nexus between the Managers and Sub-ordinates. It has 2 chief elements: Authority ( It may be defined as the right of the directors and top degree executives to give orders to sub-ordinates. To ease Co-ordination, each director has a certain function to play in hierarchy and has a certain authorization over his colleagues and sub-ordinates to carry through his responsibilty ) Integrity of Command ( It preserves the unbroken line in the hierarchy. It states that, for the interest of better co-ordination, an person or a group must merely hold a individual higher-up, to whom coverage is done. It helps to take struggles and work confusion ) For E.g ; Ohio Fire Department is under the control of Ohio Government. Chain of Command goes right from the top degree Mayor, to the lower degree of directions such as Supervision Divison Chief and Staff Division Chief.4. SPAN OF CONTROL:Span of Control is besides an of import component of Organizational Structure. It fundamentally manipulates the capableness of a director to command a certain figure of employees. This figure is determined after analysing the size of the organisation. There are two type of spans, 1. Wider Spans 2. Narrow Spans. If a director decides to keep a narrow span, he can keep close control. However, there are few drawbacks every bit good. First, they are expensive due to extra degree of direction. Second, Communication procedure between the top and lower direction becomes more complex. Finally, Due to contract but tight supervising, Managers tend to do strong and tight policies, ordinances, which consequences in detering Employee Autonomy and Satisfaction. In recent old ages, the accent has been laid on keeping a wider span of control. It is easier to keep control, easier to pass on with sub ordinates and more significantly, policies are in the favour of Employees liberty, due to all right supervising. NARROW SPAN OF CONTROL5. Centralization AND Decentralization:Centralization is defined as Ã¢â¬Å" the grade to which determination devising is concentrated at a individual point in the organisation Ã¢â¬ . An Organization, in which there is less input taken from the lower degree directors and employees, and the top degree direction rely and take cardinal determinations by themselves, non affecting the lower direction Ã¢â¬Ës input. Hence, it is Ã¢â¬Å" Centralization Ã¢â¬ . For e.g ; a Centralized Government is a signifier of Centralization, as it takes lesser input from lower governments and has the liberty to do determinations. Decentralization possibly defined as Ã¢â¬Å" the procedure of scattering decision-making administration closer to the people and citizens Ã¢â¬ . In Decentralization, the lower degree forces provide more input and take part in the determination devising. Decentralization and centralisation have played major functions in the history of many societies. An first-class illustration is the gradual political and organisational alterations that have occurred in European history. During the rise and autumn of the Roman Empire, Europe went through major centralisation and decentalisation. Although the leaders of the Roman Empire created a European substructure, the autumn of the Empire left Europe without a strong political system or military protection. Viking and other barbaric onslaughts further led rich Romans to construct up their big estates, in a manner that would protect their households and make a self-sufficing life topographic point. This system was greatly Ã¢â¬Å" decentralized Ã¢â¬ , as the Godheads of the manor had power to support and command the little agricultural environment that was their manor.6. Formalization:Ã¢â¬Å" The grade to which occupations within the organisation are standardized Ã¢â¬ Standardization is the certainty of the occupation. If a occupation is standardized, the employees know what to make and there is no kind of confusion. If a occupation is extremely standardized, there is minimal sum of discretion over what is to be done, when it is to be done and how it is to be done. It consequences in consistent and improved public presentation. The grade of formalisation depends on the organisation, its policies and its construction. For case, there a few occupations that are non formalized i.e Departmental Stores Clerk, Gas Station workers etc. On the other manus, companies like P & A ; G and Unilever normally have a standardised manner of making occupation. It is easy for employees to settle in, as they are able to understand their occupation decently.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Death is eternal. It is the biggest truth, the ultimate reality that we are born to face. According to the Holy Quran Ã¢â¬Å"Every soul shall have a taste of death. Hence, death is inevitable and its time and place is determined even before we are born.The following verse from the Holy Quran proves that there is life after death: Ã¢â¬Å"And do not speak of those who are slain in Allah's way as dead; nay, (they are) alive, but you do not perceiveÃ¢â¬ (2:154).Al Barzakh is an Arabic term which means barrier or veil. The word barrier implies the intermediary stage between death and the day of resurrection. As the Holy Quran mentions: Ã¢â¬Å"Between them is a Barzakh (Barrier) which they do not transgressÃ¢â¬ (Ar-Rahman: 20).Those who are alive cannot communicate with those who are in their graves. In return, the deceased cannot hear or see what happens in this world. To ask them for forgiveness is a sin since Allah alone has the power to forgive us. Life in this world and life in the grave are separate and the wall between them cannot be crossed (Islam, 2008).LifeHuman beings are curious and the mysteries of life and death have always fascinated them. Unlike death, life can be scientifically proven. Life for all human beings begins in his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s womb. After forty days of conception, life exists in the womb, and after another eighty days, life is blown into the piece of flesh and blood. At this time, the personÃ¢â¬â¢s deeds, destiny, religion and time of death are determined. Since Allah gives us our lives, He has the sole right to take it away as and when He pleases.DeathDespite being the greatest truth of our lives, death remains one of the biggest mysteries. Belief in life after death is crucial to being a true believer. The recent demise of my father intrigued me to answer certain questions about death. Life after death exists in a metaphysical world. It is questioned by people because it cannot be scientifically proven. However, there is suffi cient proof of it in the Holy Quran and in the sayings of the Holy Prophet (al-Jibaly, 2006).When a Muslim dies, he is bathed and wrapped in a clean white cloth, after which he is buried. Prayers are offered at a personÃ¢â¬â¢s death for his forgiveness. According to an interview conducted with a Muslim scholar, death is a transition that takes us from life that is temporary to life that is eternal. Life in the world is just there to prepare us for the life in the hereafter. It is then that actual and meaningful life begins. For those who did good in their lives, they will be rewarded with a life in paradise beyond their imagination (al-Jibaly, 2006).According to the Muslim scholar interviewed, when a person dies, he does not take his wealth with him into the grave. The only things he takes with him are his deeds. And it is his deeds that determine his final destination, that is, heaven or hell.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Refer ring to the three main scenes that the witches appear in, write about the effect they give to the play as a whole and also how they influence Macbeth to behave as he does. Macbeth, a tragic story of how greed can corrupt the mind. Written in 1606 for King James the first, people did actually believe in witches. I my-self believe that William Shakespeare used the witches as the Ã¢â¬Å"fuelÃ¢â¬ for his play, I think this led to the massive success of Ã¢â¬Å"MacbethÃ¢â¬ . When people thought of King James the first they may have also thought of witches. After all James did publicise his beliefÃ¢â¬â¢s and thought in witches. He believed that they had an effect on his life. The people of his countries (England and Scotland) would have thought it was completely normal. Now a day, if someone accused someone of being a witch, the accuser would be looked upon in society as insane. The idea of witches over the years has simply dried out. In class we have watched and studied two different films based on Macbeth. One was Ã¢â¬Å"Macbeth on the EstateÃ¢â¬ . This was extremely different to what I expected. Produced in 1996 itÃ¢â¬â¢s quite a modern film. I thought it was incredible how they managed to use every word from Macbeth, (the play its-self) and fit it into a modern set. The film was filmed on an estate on Birmingham and the main characters were young street Ã¢â¬Å"yobsÃ¢â¬ ! Personally I think it must have been a hard job for the film producers to re-film Macbeth into a modern time. Another film was just called Ã¢â¬Å"MacbethÃ¢â¬ produced in 1971 itÃ¢â¬â¢s quite an old film. It was though exactly what I expected. It was a brilliant film and only a few features let it down. Music which I think plays a big role in films and plays because it allows us to understand the mood and feeling of the play/film. I think technology was to blame for this though! Did the witches have an effect on the audience? Yes of course did. Why? Simply because witchcraft played an big part in the lives of the people who lived during the period of the 1500Ã¢â¬â¢s to the 1600Ã¢â¬â¢s. I mean, going out to town, bowling is all normal but what about going to see the local witch been executed publicly? 300 years ago this would as normal as any of the activities above. Back then I think people were fascinated with witches. Witches held so much mystery and had a force of fear surrounding them. Of course this is what people thought, if people went to see Ã¢â¬Å"MacbethÃ¢â¬ at the theatre in Leeds, obviously I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think people would have as much interest as people 300 years ago. There would be interest in the witches Ã¢â¬â IÃ¢â¬â¢m not saying the opposite, but not as much as back then. I think it would make the audience wonder how and why the people of the 1600Ã¢â¬â¢s lived like they did. The witches appear in three main scenes in Macbeth: Act 1 scene 1 Act 1 scene 3 Act 4 scene 1 In act 1 scene 1 they, to me, introduce the play. Although we often forget that the play is all about witchcraft, thinking about it, the witches do play an important part in Macbeth. I think when Shakespeare wrote act 1 scene 1 his intentions were to grip the audience at the very beginning. The witches do not appear to do anything in this scene it seems as if theyÃ¢â¬â¢re there to introduce them-selves, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t really appear for a reason. I think itÃ¢â¬â¢s just to hype the audience up for the rest of the play. In act 1 scene 3 the witches tell us basically what Macbeth is about. Shakespeare grips the audience even tighter when they say: FIRST WITCH: All hail Macbeth, hail to thee Thane of Glamis. SECOND WITCH: All hail Macbeth, hail to thee Thane of Cawdor. THIRD WITCH: All hail Macbeth, that shalt be King hereafter. I think Shakespeare here uses repetition really well. It adds mystery and feeling to the play. A Victorian audience at this moment must be really Ã¢â¬Å"intoÃ¢â¬ the play. The mystery deepens even more when less than a few scenes away a messenger arrives to tell Macbeth that he is now Thane of Cawdor. A modern audience at this point must shiver with excitement. A Victorian audience may have done the same, after all these people did fear witches in their day. In act 4 scene 1 I donÃ¢â¬â¢t really feel that this scene does much for the play. Some people may disagree and I can see why. I mean people sat their reading the book must be thinking, Ã¢â¬Å"how the hell can a tree move?Ã¢â¬ This is because Macbeth says: MACBETH: Who can impress the forest, bid the tree Unfix its earth-bound root? This will keep the reader wondering, Ã¢â¬Å"I wonder when this prophesy will come true?Ã¢â¬ I think they would think this because they want to see how the tree ends up moving this was clever on ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s part this would have helped keep the audience interested. There are three prophesies all which tell Macbeth when to start worrying. The language the witches use is strange even for ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s time! Another thing is that the lines are shorter than the lines in other parts of the play. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think this is a coincidence, I personally think Shakespeare did this to keep the witches rhymes simple. I think he did this to keep the audience interested and not put them off. The use of rhyme Ã¢â¬â people often forget that poetic writing doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to rhyme, in fact in the play there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t really much rhyming going on, but when the witches speak in Macbeth thereÃ¢â¬â¢re speeches do rhyme unlike most parts of the play. To add even more mystery to the witches they use strange ingredients in their potions! I mean we all expect strange items but not that strange. CatÃ¢â¬â¢s tongues, guts, eyes what more do we want? I think this would have helped Shakespeare with his audience. I think they would have loved the idea of witches around a cauldron especially James! Going back and looking at these two scenes: Act 1 scene 3 Act 4 scene 1 We see that Macbeth is involved in both scenes. In act 1 scene 3 we see Macbeth as a worrier for his country, a gentleman. In this scene he Ã¢â¬Å"bumpsÃ¢â¬ into the witches with Banquo his best friend. From what I can tell Macbeth is a bit shocked I think this because he basically asks them what they are, I think he doubts that they are human. I think this because Macbeth says: MACBETH: Speak if you can: what are you? The witches then tell Macbeth that he shall be Thane of Cawdor then King. Banquo interrupting seems more enthusiastic about talking to the witches who then tell Banquo his children shall be Kings. Maybe Macbeth is trying to take in what heÃ¢â¬â¢s just been told. I think Macbeth wants to believe the witches but he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to get his hopes up. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why heÃ¢â¬â¢s looking for a reason, he asks: MACBETH: By SinellÃ¢â¬â¢s death I know I am Thane of Glamis, But how, of Cawdor? The Thane of Cawdor lives A prosperous gentleman; The witches then vanish and Macbeth is left talking to Banquo. I think Macbeth is still avoiding taking about him been King, he says: MACBETH: Your children shall be Kings. In Act 4 Scene 1 we see Macbeth as a murderer and a evil man or should I say Ã¢â¬â King. He barges onto the scene and demands answers from the witches I know this because he says: MACBETH: HoweÃ¢â¬â¢er you come to know it, answer me: Three apparitions then go on to tell Macbeth three things: One that he should be aware of Macduff, Two that he should he should be aware of anyone not born from a womenÃ¢â¬â¢s womb and Three that he should we weary when the woods begin to move. I think at this point in the play Macbeth is worried about BanquoÃ¢â¬â¢s children and what the witches told Macbeth at the beginning of the play. I think this because he says: MACBETH: Can tell so much-will BanquoÃ¢â¬â¢s issue ever Reign in this Kingdom? The witches do not give Macbeth his answer. I think the reason for this is because if the audience know the answer to this question then they can figure out the end of the play. As IÃ¢â¬â¢ve already said, I do think the witches played an enormous part in Macbeth. I also think that they play a rather big part in MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s life after all arenÃ¢â¬â¢t they really the ones responsible for King DuncanÃ¢â¬â¢s death? I think they are. I think this because at the end of the day the witches gave Macbeth the idea of killing the witch. I think as soon as the third witch says: THIRD WITCH: All hail Macbeth, that shalt be King hereafter. I think this is, in a way the poison been injected into MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s blood. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s only a matter of time before it begins to kick in, and when it does Macbeth will think up his plans to murder King Duncan. Another reason I think the witches are to blame is because Macbeth wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have done it with out them I think this because Macbeth says to his wife when she pushes him into murdering Duncan: MACBETH: We will proceed no further in this business He also says: MACBETH: So foul and fair a day I have not seen. I think the above proves he wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have murdered Duncan if he had not met the witches. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think the witches are all to blame though, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think Lady Macbeth helps either sheÃ¢â¬â¢s always trying to push Macbeth into committing murder. Some people in the audience may wonder if Lady Macbeth is a witch or perhaps the witches have put a spell on her? I have seen two different versions of the witches on screen and both were extremely different. Obviously the two versions were PolanskiÃ¢â¬â¢s version and Macbeth on the Estate. In PolanskiÃ¢â¬â¢s version the witches were what you would expect, old ugly women who lived in a dirty smelling cave but in Macbeth on the estateÃ¢â¬â¢s version the witches were played by three children who lived in an old abandoned flat. I thought this was a rather interesting (and clever) concept. Both films were very good but if I had to choose one which I thought was the most effective (concerning the witches only) I would choose PolanskiÃ¢â¬â¢s version. This is because the witches were exactly what I expect and want. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t want sweet little children playing the part of horrible witches. It just isnÃ¢â¬â¢t Macbeth. It rips the whole idea of witches into shreds or to be more precise it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t follow the stereotype. Some people may think this is a bad thing but I would have to disagree with them. However in PolanskiÃ¢â¬â¢s version the witches are brilliant theyÃ¢â¬â¢re ugly, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re old, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re dirty and theyÃ¢â¬â¢re naked. I also think PolanskiÃ¢â¬â¢s version was better because we saw the witches using magic. For example when they faded out into thin air. It was what I expected and the reasons above are the reasons I choose Macbeth over Macbeth on the Estate.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
INTRODUCTION Humanity is the human race, which includes everyone on Earth. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also a word for the qualities that make us human, such as the ability to love and have compassion, be creative, and not be a robot or alien. While in the other hand, technology is a word with Greek origins defined as the practical application of knowledge especially in a particular area. Besides, technology is a word used to collectively describe or portray the advancements, abilities, creations undertakings, views, and knowledge of a singular group of persons which is us, the humankind. When we speak about relationships between technology and humanity, it is evident that we have to deal with the interrelations between some very complex phenomena of technology, science society or systems of society and systems of rights of a universal nature. The discovery and development of a large number of powerful energy source-coal, petroleum and electricity have enabled humanity to conquer the barriers of nature. All of t his has facilities growth of fast modes of transport, which in turn has transformed the world into a global village. It has shaped our civilization from scrap. Every invention escalated human hunger to know more. Every time it has pushed human potential to a new level. Back in The Stone Age, when humans were still in a jungle, an invention like sharp stone helped them to hunt better and fire helped them to taste food better. Wheels helped them to explore new boundaries, and domestication of animals made life more secure. An invention of currency eased the transaction and barter system was let go. The colonial era began as the invention of advanced weaponry and transportation such as ships which changed the phase of history. More advanced inventions came like the birth of steam engines, the invention of corporations, and mass transportation gained momentum. Then, along came diesel engines, which personalized machine transportation even more. And the Wright brothers forever changed the way of travel by air transportation, like inventing aircraft. As for communication, transistors was the well-known invention, which changed the way we compute, including land phones which also a big part of the communication changes. Personal computers and workstations which reduced paper consumption in offices and mobile phones which permanently changed the world of communication. Then, the best invention of all is the Internet. It localized the whole world as it changed the way we look at the world. And created tons of entrepreneurs and innovators some of the best creation such as e-commerce, which changed the way we access our daily needs, social media which changed the way we communicate with other people, e-banking, which you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to travel all the way, and stand in line just to transfer any amount you want. The e-wallets, which we do not have to stand in line to pay our electricity bills and phone bills. You also have the access to quality education from across the globe. While walking this path we have screwed up the following such as overpopulating the earth. The invention of medicine eradicated the deadly diseases thus reducing death rates. Within a century, we have increased 5 fold of population. We messed up the natural resources and permanently killing almost 30% of species of the Earth and 20% more are critically endangered species which may soon get extinct. Though we take a lot of pride in our invention and development, what we forgot is we share this planet with other species and if we donÃ¢â¬â¢t realize it soon, well the planet itself has its own way of controlling things.
Friday, September 13, 2019
Critical Review Of Sumantra Ghoshal's Article - Essay Example There have been extensive debates about good practices in the theory of management. In this regard, the article published by Sumantra Ghoshal had provided quite a valuable insight. The surge in corporate scandals in the past has brought management practices taught in the management schools under attack. The article published by Ghoshal (2005) had stated that academic research, which is done in the field of business and management, has led to certain detrimental practices in the field of management. According to Ghoshal, most of these negative influences can be attributed to the incorporation of a set of ideas that have gained more dominance in the theory of management for organizations. Ghoshal has strongly criticized the business schools of propagating ideas based on amoral practices, which have made students free of any type of social and ethical concerns (Gapper,2005). Hayek had criticized the scientific model adopted by business schools by commenting that it is "pretense of knowl edge" (Ghoshal and Moran,1996). I think both of these authors had a major complaint against the dehumanization of humans in business. According to me, most business practices that are adopted by organizations are regarded from a capitalist view point, which does not take ethical considerations of decisions into account. The paper published by Ghoshal is unique according to me because it points out not only to the flaws of organizations per se but also to a flaw in which knowledge is imparted by individuals in the academic field, including him.
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Affiant Introduction - Assignment Example Lieutenant James Bryant is a Homicide Investigator for the Twin City, Wisconsin Police Department, a position he has held for ten years. At the rank of Lieutenant, Bryant is responsible and in charge of a six member homicide investigations squad. In his over twenty years with the Twin City Police, he was also a patrol officer for three years, five years as a detective on the robbery squad, and three years on the Fugitive Apprehension squad. Prior to that, he also served in the US Army as a military policeman in Frankfurt, Germany for four years. Lieutenant BryantÃ¢â¬â¢s education includes the University of Wisconsin, with a degree in Criminal Justice. He is also a graduate of the FBI National Academy and the Wisconsin Law Enforcement Academy. The Lieutenant has received specialized Training in SWAT Training, Crisis Negotiation Training, and Latent Fingerprint Training. His professional affiliations include the National Peace Officer Association, the National Homicide Investigators Association, and the Wisconsin State Peace Officers Association. Bryant has been involved in testimony for over 150 court appearances, of which twenty times were as an expert witness. He has participated in the investigation of some 2,500 cases. In specific for Homicide Cases the officer has investigated 300 separate cases. Of those he had 200 arrests and a 96-percent solve
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Policy making in the federal system - Research Paper Example roads and bridges), and preventing accidents. States will determine their own objectives for enhancing cargo transfers, reducing blockage, modernizing infrastructures, and ensuring safety. MAP-21 incorporates a number of conditions to cut down costs and expedite project delivery time (n.a., 2012, 1). This essay analyzes how MAP-21 raises the issue about the conflict between state (local) and federal governments, its pros and cons, its effectiveness as a policy, and its consistency with the constitutional framework of American federalism. When the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) concluded in 2009 the Congress agreed to draft another transportation proposal. The Senate successfully submitted a thoroughly drafted proposalÃ¢â¬âMAP-21. This Act was a major bipartisan program (Dilger, 2012, 1). Even though federal authority over surface transportation policy is still important, MAP-21 characterizes an extension of earlier focus of reauthorization on enlarging the state administrationsÃ¢â¬â¢ executive power. For instance, the policy grants state governments more freedom in the utilization of federal highway support. It also grants states more freedom by increasing the projects entitled to resources reserved for non-highway associated improvements, like historic conservation, renovation of rails, and environmental protection. State governments were also given greater privilege to shift a percentage of those resources, within given conditions, to other fe deral safety and highway projects (CMAP Updates, 2012, para 4-5). However, some argue that the federal government has an obligation to make sure that federal resources are spent in the most resourceful and valuable way to advance the national objective of safeguarding the environment and boosting national economic development (Dilger, 2012, 2). They believe
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Should We lease or buy a car - Essay Example The total costs incurred in the three options analyzed form the basis of the choice preferred. As can be seen from the analysis, the buying option based on the chosen parameters and values is better considering especially if a higher deposit is given. It is recommended that one buys the car by paying a higher deposit amount. Should we lease or buy a car? This is the managerial question that the company seeks to answer. Buying or leasing is a very familiar question in the present age. In the United States, leasing accounted for close to 42 percent of the total new cars purchased in 2000. It is important to note that the number is increasing at a considerable rate. It is estimated that more cars that are new will be leased in the future. Leasing is defined as the process renting for a particular period or amount of time. As a result, the individual pays only a portion of the item value and not its total value. Majority of the automobiles are leased and the lease generally lasts for 2 to 5 years. The individual or the organization puts up the initial security deposit and it is generally a one to two months advance lease expense (Royale Management Services, 2001). There are several benefits of buying or leasing a car. Benefits to buying include lack of restrictions as to how many miles per year the car can be driven, the car can be sold because it has some residual value, and the absence of insurance issues linked to premature termination. Other benefits include that the car be treated in any way the individual or the company wishes this were because there are no turn-in issues associated with the residual value. If an investment type loan like home equity is utilized to finance the purchase of the car, the interest charges can be deducted on the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s or the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s tax return (Royale Management Services, 2001). Benefits to leasing
Critically evaluate the ways that the HR function could play a more strategic role in the organisation - Essay Example By stepping away from subordinate-based practices and theories, the human resources manager develops practices that are geared for long-term success as it relates to the tactical side of objective fulfilment and long-run market orientation. The HR manager can take a more strategic role in the organisation by focusing on line management, executive leadership, new training development, and involvement in change management principles in an effort to expand their presence in the organisation as an HR leader. The strategy angle Ã¢â¬Å"The overall purpose of HRM is to ensure that the organisation is able to achieve success through peopleÃ¢â¬ (Armstrong 2006: 11). Success does not necessarily pertain to human capital needs and motivational practice development, it involves market orientation, market position of the business, operational efficiency, general staff productivity, and development of competitive strategies to gain cost and human capital advantages. Therefore, to become more st rategically oriented, the HR manager needs to expand their organisational presence to include executive management involvement and line management education to achieve competitive success using people as resources. In most organisations, change is a constant scenario. New technology implementation or procedures that relate to attaining market profitability (as two examples) dictate a need for improving change leadership and gaining employee/management support. In a situation where the business requires new information technology, changes to how employees conduct their job roles is inevitable, usually on the back of workflow redesign or complete changes to job responsibility. Kappelman, McKeeman and Zhang (2009) identify that when IT projects are part of change management, failures occur due to weak team commitment, lack of senior executive support, or team members who lack the requisite skills and competencies needed to complete the project effectively. In most cases, large-scale im plementation of new technologies consist of months if not years of labour investment and contribute significantly to cost reduction activities or improving process flow related to meeting customer demands. This is where the HR manager can take a more strategic role in the business in promoting change management principles to meet strategic goals. When change is required, management is described as Ã¢â¬Å"undeserving victims of irrational and dysfunctional responses of employeesÃ¢â¬ (Ford, Ford and DÃ¢â¬â¢Amelio 2008: 362). The human resources manager can become more involved with the team functioning during the implementation phases of the new technology launch, promoting more effective interpersonal relationship development and team functioning. Weak team commitment may be stemming from employees, executives or mid-tier management due to the illogical and dysfunctional inherent psychology of the team members. By applying subordinate-based practices to higher-level individuals involved in project teams, the HR manager is promoting a more strategic angle that leads to more positive information technology and process improvement outcomes. Outside of technology scenarios, the HR manager can
Monday, September 9, 2019
Microaggressions - Essay Example Having a friend who belongs to the said racial group though, I felt that it was demeaning. As I recall now those episodes in high school, I realize that I was probably not just a witness then. Although I somehow felt that those microinsults were really demeaning, my passivity or inaction towards such incidents was probably reflective of my own distinct biases to people of color. It was clear that students who were clearly not Caucasians were being treated as second-class citizens. However, it was not just because they were of color that they were treated as such. Most of the African American students in high school did not come from well-off families. Their economic status was also a factor that contributed to the treatment. I believe that passivity towards the issue then could be attributed to the fact that while I might not have been very particular about race, I held the belief that society is stratified on the basis of economic status and that such status quo should be maintained. Incidentally, most African Americans and other students of non-Caucasian lineage that I knew in high school were relatively not well-off compared to many of the whites. It was because of this concept that made me think that their being second-class citizens has made them vulnerable to microinsults. I was caught between my belief that they should expect such treatment as second-class citizens and my tendency to develop sympathy to their plight. Such sympathy, however, was also constrained with the idea that in stratified society, such treatment is only normal. Not knowing how to react to over racism, I managed to make a stand that I now realize to be a case of microinvalidation. As I tried to make friends with fellow African American students, I actually introduced myself to them as being color-blind. Every time I meet African Americans whom I wanted to make friends with, I always try to insinuate that I do not mind about the color of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s skin. Through different ways of